That changed on January 3, 2018, when Pyongyang`s representatives returned to the line, in conjunction with direct negotiations that began five days later between senior officials from the two states. But how important is the reopening of the hotline on the Korean peninsula? Will the phone line reduce the risk of war that ignited dangerously last year with repeated North Korean nuclear missile tests and extravagant personal threats from both North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and US President Donald Trump? India and Pakistan would benefit from establishing a link between their nuclear aircraft, which is more robust than the US-Soviet/Russian emergency number. However, the attempt to create an NRRC-type structure, even if reduced to the current version, goes far beyond what the mutual relationship would currently tolerate. Trying to establish an NRRC-type structure could be a recipe for failure. The US-Soviet-Russian NRRC was only created at the end of the Cold War, after years of negotiations on arms control and treaty implementation, significant interaction between each country`s nuclear and military facilities and reduced mutual hostility.  These conditions are likely to have existed in South Asia for many years. In 2007, the Moscow-Washington emergency number was upgraded; A dedicated computer network connects Moscow and Washington. The new system began operating on January 1, 2008.  It continues to use both satellite links, but a fibre optic cable has replaced the old backup cable. Commercial software is used for both chat and email: chat to coordinate operations and email for real messages.
The transmission is almost instantaneous, given the speed of light and the importance of the communication system. Nuclear Emergency Number Between the United States and China In April 1998, Chinese Secretary of State Tang Jiaxuan and U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright signed an agreement to establish an emergency call number between the governments of the two countries. The hotline was activated during President Clinton`s visit to China in June 1998. Under the agreement, upgrades are expected to be made through the use of Intelsat satellites and modems, facsimile machines and computers.  Facsimile terminals were in service in 1986.  Teletypes were switched off in 1988 after several years of review and their use proved reliable. The Soviets transferred the hotline to the newer, geostationary Gorizont satellites of the Stationar system.
 The Republican Party criticized the hotline on its 1964 national platform; The Kennedy administration « sought housing with communism, without adequate guarantees or compensation for the gains of freedom. It has moved away from the proven allies by opening a « hot line » with a sworn enemy, not with a proven friend, and generally following a risky path like the one that began in Munich a quarter of a century ago.  There is no political interest for the two capitals to establish a link between their NCAs and the two governments have left their existing agreement between foreign secretaries fallow. Moreover, senior officials are concerned and bilateral tensions undermine any desire to seek ways to minimize nuclear risks, especially as both sides view the nuclear crisis as a highly unlikely event. Some of them will realize that a hotline would increase risk-taking and reinforce deep-rooted nuclear narratives. After more than 70 years of hostility, this objection will not be so easy to overcome. However, in the face of the proliferation of civilian nuclear programmes in both countries, the staging of weapons on the battlefield in Pakistan and plans to deploy weapons at sea, New Delhi and Islamabad must act to address concrete national interests and isolate the broader argument on national narratives.