1. Intercontinental missile launchers (ICBMs) are land-based ballistic missile launchers capable of reaching a range greater than the shortest distance between the northeastern border of the continental United States of America and the northwestern border of the continental part of the territory of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, with a range of more than 5,500 kilometres. In early 1975, delegations in Geneva resumed negotiations and worked on an agreement based on this general framework. During this period, a draft joint text was first drafted and many restrictions were agreed upon. However, during the negotiations, it became clear that there were fundamental differences between the two sides on two important issues: how to deal with cruise missiles and whether the new Soviet bomber, known as the Backfire in the United States, is considered a heavy bomber and is therefore counted in total of 2,400. While there have been differences of opinion on other issues such as MIRV verification rules, restrictions on new systems and missile weight caps, progress has been made in these areas. However, issues relating to cruise missiles and backfires have not been resolved. The SALT II agreement was signed in Vienna on 18 June 1979 by President Carter and Secretary General Brezhnev. President Carter sent it to the Senate on June 22 for review and approval of ratification. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit the manufacture of strategic missiles capable of carrying nuclear weapons. The first agreements, known as SALT I and SALT II, were signed in 1972 and 1979 by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and aimed to limit the arms race of strategic (long-range or intercontinental) nuclear-armed ballistic missiles. For the first time proposed by U.S. President Lyndon B.
Johnson in 1967, strategic arms limitation talks were agreed by the two superpowers in the summer of 1968, and in November 1969 comprehensive negotiations began. The SALT II agreement was the result of many of the remaining resusctive questions of the 1972 SALT I Treaty. Although the 1972 treaty limited a large number of nuclear weapons, many issues have not been resolved. Talks between the United States and the Soviet Union began almost immediately after the ratification of SALT-I by the two nations in 1972. However, these discussions did not bring new breakthroughs. In 1979, the United States and the Soviet Union sought to restart the process. For the United States, the fear that the Soviets would advance in the arms race was the main motivator. For the Soviet Union, there is growing concern about the increasingly close relations between America and Communist China. This agreement paved the way for further discussions on international cooperation and the limitation of nuclear weapons, as seen by both the SALT II Treaty and the 1973 Washington Summit.