The Treaty of Tlatelolco prohibits the acquisition, possession, development, testing or use of nuclear weapons by Latin American States and prohibits other countries from stockpiling and deploying nuclear weapons on their territory. According to a 2020 study in the American Political Science Review, arms control is rare because successful arms control agreements involve a difficult compromise between transparency and security. For arms control agreements to be effective, it must be possible to verify in depth whether a State is complying with the agreement, for example. B through intrusive inspections. However, States are often reluctant to submit to such inspections when they have reason to fear that inspectors will use inspections to gather information on State capacities that could be used in a future conflict.  On April 8, 24, 2010, the United States and Russia signed New START, a legally binding and verifiable agreement that limits each party to 1,550 strategic nuclear warheads, based on 700 strategic delivery systems (ICBMs, SLBMs and heavy bombers), and limited to 800 stationed and unused launchers. The contractually responsible warhead limit is 30 percent lower than SORT`s 2,200 limit, and the limit for delivery vehicles is 50 percent lower than the 1,600 allowed by START I. The contract contains a verification system that combines elements of START I with new elements adapted to New START. Activities covered by the Treaty include field inspections and exhibitions, data exchanges and notifications concerning strategic offensive weapons and facilities covered by the Treaty, as well as provisions to facilitate the use of national technical means for contract monitoring. The treaty also provides for the continuous exchange of telemetry (missile flight test data of up to five tests per year) and does not significantly limit missile defense or conventional long-range attack capabilities. The U.S.
Senate approved New START on December 22, 2010. The approval procedure of the Russian Parliament (adoption by the State Duma and the Federation Council) was completed on 26 January 2011. The contract entered into force on 5 February 2011 and expires in 2021, although both parties can agree to extend the contract for a maximum of five years. .